This page connects the first edition of Every Child Ready to Read (ECRR1) to the second edition (ECRR2), and to the Ohio Early Learning and Development Standards for Language and Literacy Development and the Head Start Child Development and Early Learning Framework. For more information about ECRR1, visit Saroj Ghoting's website.

In addition to the Five Practices (Talking, Singing, Reading, Writing, Playing), ECRR2 emphasizes five early literacy components, which overlap significantly with the Six Skills of ECRR1 and which incorporate the latest research in early literacy development. These components include Oral Language and Vocabulary, Phonological Awareness, Letter Knowledge, Background Knowledge (which incorporates print motivation and narrative skills), and Print Conventions (which incorporates print awareness). Saroj provides a Summary of the Five Early Literacy Components (PDF) with suggested activities to support and develop each.

The ECRR Frequently Asked Questions page. discusses the relationship between the Six Skills and Five Practices. Additional tools to help you relate the Six Skills to the Five Practices:

Print Motivation: A child’s interest in and enjoyment of books and reading.
Print Motivation and ECRR2
These storytime outlines demonstrate Print Motivation through Reading, Singing and Talking.
The ORTR Library includes examples of early literacy crafts and activities that relate Print Motivation to Playing, Talking, and Writing. Other tips and activities include:

Talking
Talk about what books you like and what you like about them.
When you share information that you read, tell your child how you learned the information.

Singing
Sing songs about loving books: "The More We Read Together", for example.

Reading
Encourage your baby to enjoy books, even when chewing on them!
Allow the child to choose what to read.
Read with expression.
If your child loses interest, try another time.

Writing
Have children write/scribble notes, lists, cards, tickets, signs whether or not you can read what they say.

Playing
Engage in pretend writing and reading with your child. Encourage your child to scribble a "story" or "shopping list" and then read it to you. Pretend to go shopping together using your child's list, or bring it when you and your child go to the grocery store.
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Print Motivation and Ohio ELDS
Language and Literacy Development Domain:
Reading Strand: Early Reading. Example standard: "Show an appreciation for reading books, telling stories and singing." (16 - 36 months)
Reading Strand: Reading Comprehension. Example standard: "Actively engage in group reading with purpose and understanding." (3 - 5 years)
Reading Strand: Fluency. Example standard: "With modeling and support, use phrasing, intonation, and expression in shared reading of familiar books, poems, chants, songs, nursery rhymes or other repetitious or predictable texts." (3 - 5 years)
Reading Strand: Print Concepts. Example standard: "Demonstrate interest in exploring books." (6 - 18 months)
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Print Motivation and
Head Start Framework
Literacy Knowledge: Book Appreciation and Knowledge
Language Development: Receptive Language
English Language Development: Engagement in English Literacy Activities

Phonological Awareness: The ability to hear and play with the smaller sounds in words.
Phonological Awareness and ECRR2
These storytime outlines demonstrate Phonological Awareness through Reading, Singing and Talking.
The ORTR Library includes examples of early literacy crafts and activities that relate Phonological Awareness to Playing, Singing, and Talking. Other tips and activities include:

Talking
Speak in “parentese” until child is around 9 months of age, because they will listen to you longer and they can hear the smaller sounds in words more easily than with adult talk.
Make animal sounds and point out environmental sounds.
Say nursery rhymes.
Point out and talk about words that start with the same sound.
Point out and talk about words that rhyme.
Have children fill in the rhyming word.
Point out sounds you hear as you go for a walk.

Singing
Singing helps children hear smaller sounds in words, because words are drawn out.
Children hear each syllable because there is a different note for each syllable.

Reading
Share books with animals in them and say the sounds they make.
Share nursery rhyme books.
Share song books.
Rhyme a word in a book.
Think of words with same starting sound as a word in book.
Share books with alliteration.
Share books with rhyming words.

Writing
Draw a picture of an animal—what sound does it make?
Write child’s name, point out the sound of first letter.

Playing
Clap out words into syllables.
Play "I Spy" game—I spy something red that rhymes with X or that starts with sound Y.
Books are baby’s first toy. Keep books will animal sounds, with rhyme, where babies and children can easily play with them.

(The above tips are from The Five Practices and The Early Literacy Components Support Each Other)
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Phonological Awareness and
Ohio ELDS
Language and Literacy Development Domain:
Reading Strand: Phonological Awareness. Example standard: "With modeling and support, recognize and produce rhyming words." (3 - 5 years)
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Phonological Awareness and
Head Start Framework
Literacy Knowledge: Phonological Awareness, Alphabet Knowledge
English Language Development: Receptive English Language Skills

Vocabulary: Knowing the names of things, feelings, concepts, and ideas.
Vocabulary and ECRR2
These storytime outlines demonstrate Vocabulary through Reading, Singing and Talking.
The ORTR Library includes examples of early literacy crafts and activities that relate Phonological Awareness to Playing, Singing, and Talking. Other tips and activities include:

Talking
Speak in “parentese” until child is around 9 months of age because they will listen to you longer and hear more words.
Talk about feelings using books and in situations throughout the day
Talk about concepts (color, shape, size, texture, spatial relationships)
Add new words to what your child says.
Explain words or give synonyms.
Avoid replacing unfamiliar words with familiar ones.
Use words for ideas — responsibility, honesty, loyalty...

Singing
Songs have words not heard in every day conversation with young children (“fetch” in the song/ rhyme Jack and Jill).
Many songs help children with concepts such as opposites, size, shapes.

Reading
Language of books is richer than the language of conversation; more rare words are used.
Informational texts offer different vocabulary than story books.

Writing
Have children draw a picture and tell you about it.
Add a new word or two to what the children are saying, or clarify meanings of words they are using.

Playing
As babies handle objects and toys describe how they feel, what they look like, sounds they make.
Enhance children’s play by adding new words and descriptions to the words they use as they play.
Children learn new words best when they learn them in context, that is, in a natural setting.

(The above tips are from The Five Practices and The Early Literacy Components Support Each Other)
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Vocabulary and
Ohio ELDS
Language and Literacy Development Domain:
Listening and Speaking Strand: Receptive Language and Comprehension. Example standard: "Demonstrate interest in and use words that are new or unfamiliar in conversation and play." (16 - 36 months)
Listening and Speaking Strand: Expressive Language. Example standard: "With modeling and support, use words acquired through conversations and shared reading experiences." (3 - 5 years)
Reading Strand: Reading Comprehension. Example standard: "Understand when words are used in unconventional ways during shared reading" (16 - 36 months)
Writing Strand: Writing Application and Composition. Example standard: "With modeling and support, participate in shared research and writing projects using a variety of resources to gather information or to answer a question." (3 - 5 years)
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Vocabulary and
Head Start Framework
Language Development: Receptive Language, Expressive Language
English Language Development: Receptive English Language Skills, Expressive English Language Skills, Engagement in English Language Activities

Narrative Skills: Expressive language; the ability to recount events, describe things, tell and retell stories.
Narrative Skills and ECRR2
These storytime outlines demonstrate Narrative Skills through Reading, Singing and Talking.
The ORTR Library includes examples of early literacy crafts and activities that relate Print Motivation to Playing, Talking, Singing, and Writing. Other tips and activities include:

Talking
Ask open-ended questions, ones that cannot be answered with yes/no.
Ask questions that start with what, when, how, I wonder what would happen next or happen if . . .
Encourage talk by waiting for your child to respond.
Tell children what you know on a variety of topics.
Encourage children to tell you what they know.
Encourage children to recount events and to describe things.
Encourage children to retell stories.
Embed conversation into every day routines such as bathtime, dinnertime.

Singing
Sing a sequence song ("This is the way we...")

Reading
Read informational books, encouraging children to tell you what they know.
Read books on topics of interest to child.
Encourage child to join in while sharing books.
Retell stories with or without props/flannel board/puppets.

Writing
Have children draw pictures for a story; write what they say.
Have children draw or write down what they know on topics.
Use charts and graphs to classify objects and have children talk about characteristics.

Playing
Play is a good way to develop narrative skills through role-playing different situations:
restaurant, doctor’s office, school, car repair shop, library.
Dramatic play—act out stories together, can use puppets and/or props.
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Narrative Skills and Ohio ELDS
Language and Literacy Development Domain:
Listening and Speaking Strand: Expressive Language. Example standard: "Describe familiar people, places, things, and experiences." (3 - 5 years)
Reading Strand: Early Reading. Example standard: "Actively participate in book reading, story-telling, and singing." (6 - 18 months)
Reading Strand: Reading Comprehension. Example standard: "Retell or re-enact familiar stories." (3 - 5 years)
Writing Strand: Writing Application and Composition. Example standard: "With modeling and support, use a combination of drawing, dictating, and emergent writing to tell a story, to express ideas, and to share information about an experience or topic of interest." (3 - 5 years)
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Narrative Skills and
Head Start Framework
Literacy Knowledge: Book Appreciation & Knowledge, Early Writing
Language Development: Receptive Language, Expressive Language
English Language Development: Expressive English Language Skills, Engagement in English Language Activities

Print Awareness: Knowing that print has meaning; how to handle a book, follow words on a page, and interact with environmental print.
Print Awareness and ECRR2
These storytime outlines demonstrate Print Awareness through Reading, Singing and Talking.
The ORTR Library includes examples of early literacy crafts and activities that relate Print Awareness to Playing,Talking, and Writing. Other tips and activities include:

Talking
Point out signs and logos everywhere and labels on containers.

Singing
Have flipcharts of words of songs to follow along in storytime.
Use songbooks and point out words in the chorus or repeated lines.
Sing "Oh no, my book is upside-down" to the tune of "London Bridge".

Reading
Babies will chew on and bat the pages of books.
Point to the title of the book; point to words in repeated phrases as children say the words.
Tell children what the author and illustrator do as you say their names.

Writing
Have children make lists, write invitations and cards, write/draw their own books.

Playing
Add print to play. For example, menus to restaurant, labels to stores or restaurants, prescriptions for doctor play, etc.
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Print Awareness and
Ohio ELDS
Language and Literacy Development Domain:
Reading Strand: Print Concepts. Example standard: "Orient books correctly for reading and turn pages one at a time." (3 - 5 years)
Reading Strand: Letter and Word Recognition. Example standard: "With modeling and support, recognize familiar logos and environmental print." (16 - 36 months)
Writing Strand: Writing Process. Example standard: "Demonstrate an understanding of the structure and function of print." (3 - 5 years)
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Print Awareness and
Head Start Framework
Literacy Knowledge: Book Appreciation & Knowledge, Alphabet Knowledge, Print Concepts & Conventions, Early Writing

Letter Knowledge: Knowing that the same letter can look different, that letters have names and are related to sounds.
Letter Knowledge and ECRR2
These storytime outlines demonstrate Letter Knowledge through Reading, Singing and Talking.
The ORTR Library includes examples of early literacy crafts and activities that relate Print Motivation to Playing, Talking, Singing, and Writing. Other tips and activities include:

Talking
Talk about letters—start with letters in child’s name; talk about shapes.
Make observations comparing items—what is alike and different; explain as you sort or match items.

Singing
Sing the Alphabet song.
Sing the alphabet to Mary Had a Little Lamb.
Sing other songs with letters such as BINGO.
Sing songs that highlight shapes.

Reading
Read alphabet books, not necessarily from beginning to end.
Point out shapes in books; point out how two pictures of same object or character might be alike and different.

Writing
Scribble, draw shapes, do air writing.
Draw/write letters.
Make your own book.

Playing
Play with blocks—shapes, colors, size, so many ways to sort and categorize.
Play with puzzles.
Play matching and sorting games—notice what is alike and different.
Include foam, magnet, block letters in play.

(The above tips are from The Five Practices and The Early Literacy Components Support Each Other)
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Letter Knowledge and
Ohio ELDS
Language and Literacy Development Domain:
Reading Strand: Letter and Word Recognition. Example standard: "With modeling and support, demonstrate understanding that alphabet letters are a special category of symbols that can be named and identified." (3 - 5 years)
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Letter Knowledge and Head Start
Literacy Knowledge: Alphabet Knowledge, Print Concepts & Conventions, Early Writing