This page connects the second edition of Every Child Ready to Read (ECRR2) to the first edition (ECRR1), and to the Ohio Early Learning and Development Standards for Language and Literacy, and the Head Start Child Development and Early Learning Framework. ECRR2 is centered around five simple early literacy practices: Talking, Singing, Reading, Writing, and Playing. For more information about ECRR2, visit the Every Child Ready to Read website.
In addition to the Five Practices, ECRR2 emphasizes five early literacy components, which overlap significantly with the Six Skills of ECRR1 and which incorporate the latest research in early literacy development. These components include Oral Language and Vocabulary, Phonological Awareness, Letter Knowledge, Background Knowledge (which incorporates print motivation and narrative skills), and Print Conventions (which incorporates print awareness). Saroj provides a Summary of the Five Early Literacy Components (PDF file) with suggested activities to support and develop each.

The ECRR Frequently Asked Questions page. discusses the relationship between the Six Skills and Five Practices. Additional tools to help you relate the Six Skills to the Five Practices:

Talking: Talking with children helps them learn oral language, one of the most critical early literacy skills. The experience of self-expression also stimulates brain development, which underlies all learning. As children hear spoken language, they learn new words and what they mean.
Talking and ECRR1
Talking with children helps develop all six skills featured in ECRR1: print awareness, letter knowledge, phonological awareness, vocabulary, narrative skills, and print motivation.
The ORTR Library includes examples of early literacy crafts and activities that relate Talking to all six skills featured in ECRR1.

Tips and activities to support the Six Skills through Talking:
Print Motivation
Talk about what books you like and what you like about them.
When you share information that you read, tell your child how you learned the information.

Phonological Awareness
Speak in “parentese” until child is around 9 months of age, because they will listen to you longer and they can hear the smaller sounds in words more easily than with adult talk.
Make animal sounds and point out environmental sounds.
Say nursery rhymes.
Point out and talk about words that start with the same sound.
Point out and talk about words that rhyme.
Have children fill in the rhyming word.
Point out sounds you hear as you go for a walk.

Vocabulary
Speak in “parentese” until child is around 9 months of age because they will listen to you longer and hear more words.
Talk about feelings using books and in situations throughout the day
Talk about concepts (color, shape, size, texture, spatial relationships)
Add new words to what your child says.
Explain words or give synonyms.
Avoid replacing unfamiliar words with familiar ones.
Use words for ideas — responsibility, honesty, loyalty...

Narrative Skills
Ask open-ended questions, ones that cannot be answered with yes/no.
Ask questions that start with what, when, how, I wonder what would happen next or happen if . . .
Encourage talk by waiting for your child to respond.
Tell children what you know on a variety of topics.
Encourage children to tell you what they know.
Encourage children to recount events and to describe things.
Encourage children to retell stories.
Embed conversation into every day routines such as bathtime, dinnertime.

Print Awareness
Point out signs and logos everywhere and labels on containers.

Letter Knowledge
Talk about letters—start with letters in child’s name; talk about shapes.
Make observations comparing items—what is alike and different; explain as you sort or match items.
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Talking and
Ohio ELDS
Language and Literacy Development Domain:
Listening and Speaking Strand: Receptive Language and Comprehension. Example standard: "Demonstrate interest in and use words that are new or unfamiliar in conversation and play." (16 - 36 months)
Listening and Speaking Strand: Expressive Language. Example standard: "Describe familiar people, places, things, and experiences." (3 - 5 years)
Listening and Speaking Strand: Social Communication. Example standard: "Participate in and often initiate communication according to commonly accepted expectations with family members and in social groups. (16 - 36 months)
Reading Strand: Early Reading. Example standard: "Show an appreciation for reading books, telling stories and singing." (16 - 36 months)
Reading Strand: Reading Comprehension. Example standard: "Attend and respond when familiar books are read aloud." (birth - 8 months)
Reading Strand: Fluency. Example standard: "With modeling and support, use phrasing, intonation, and expression in shared reading of familiar books, poems, chants, songs, nursery rhymes or other repetitious or predictable texts." (3 - 5 years)
Reading Strand: Phonological Awareness. Example standard: "With modeling and support, recognize words in spoken sentences." (3 - 5 years)
Writing Strand: Writing Application and Composition. Example standard: "'Read' what he or she has written." (3 - 5 years)
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Talking and
Head Start Framework
Literacy Knowledge: Book Appreciation & Knowledge, Phonological Awareness, Alphabet Knowledge, Print Concepts & Conventions, Early Writing
Language Development: Receptive Language, Expressive Language
English Language Development: Receptive English Language Skills, Expressive English Language Skills, Engagement in English Literacy Activities

Singing: Singing slows down language so children can hear the different sounds that make up words
Singing and ECRR1
Singing and rhyming are especially effective at developing letter knowledge, phonological awareness, and vocabulary.
The ORTR Library includes examples of early literacy crafts and activities that relate Singing to phonological awareness, vocabulary, and narrative skills.

Tips and activities to support the Six Skills through Singing:
Print Motivation
Sing songs about loving books: "The More We Read Together", for example.

Phonological Awareness
Singing helps children hear smaller sounds in words, because words are drawn out.
Children hear each syllable because there is a different note for each syllable.

Vocabulary
Songs have words not heard in everyday conversation with young children (“fetch” in the song/ rhyme Jack and Jill).
Many songs help children with concepts such as opposites, size, shapes.

Narrative Skills
Sing a sequence song ("This is the way we...")

Print Awareness
Have flipcharts of words of songs to follow along at storytimes.
Use songbooks and point out words in the chorus or repeated lines.
Sing "Oh no, my book is upside-down" to the tune of "London Bridge".

Letter Knowledge
Sing the Alphabet song.
Sing the alphabet to Mary Had a Little Lamb.
Sing other songs with letters such as BINGO.
Sing songs that highlight shapes.
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Singing and
Ohio ELDS
Language and Literacy Development Domain:
Listening and Speaking Strand: Receptive Language and Comprehension. Example standard: "Attends and responds to language and sounds." (birth - 8 months)
Listening and Speaking Strand: Expressive Language. Example standard: "Combine words to express more complex ideas, or requests." (16 - 36 months)
Listening and Speaking Strand: Social Communication. Example standard: "Attempt to respond to basic forms of social communication with the appropriate facial expression, vocalization, and/or gesture." (birth - 8 months)
Reading Strand: Early Reading. Example standard: "Show an appreciation for reading books, telling stories and singing. (16 - 36 months)
Reading Strand: Fluency. Example standard: "With modeling and support, use phrasing, intonation, and expression in shared reading of familiar books, poems, chants, songs, nursery rhymes or other repetitious or predictable texts." (3 - 5 years)
Reading Strand: Phonological Awareness. Example standard: "With modeling and support, recognize and produce rhyming words." (3 - 5 years)
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Singing and
Head Start Framework
Literacy Knowledge: Phonological Awareness,
Language Development: Receptive Language
English Language Development: Receptive English Language Skills, Expressive English Language Skills, Engagement in English Literacy Activities

Reading: Shared reading is the single most important way to help children get ready to read
Reading and ECRR1
Reading helps children learn all six skills featured in ECRR1.
The ORTR Library includes examples of storytimes that relate Reading to each of the Six Skills:
Print Motivation, Phonological Awareness, Vocabulary, Narrative Skills, Print Awareness, Letter Knowledge

Tips and activities to support the Six Skills through Reading:
Print Motivation
Encourage your baby to enjoy books, even when chewing on them!
Allow the child to choose what to read.
Read with expression.
If your child loses interest, try another time.

Phonological Awareness
Share books with animals in them and say the sounds they make.
Share nursery rhyme books.
Share song books.
Rhyme a word in a book.
Think of words with same starting sound as a word in book.
Share books with alliteration.
Share books with rhyming words.

Vocabulary
The language of books is richer than the language of conversation; more rare words are used.
Informational texts offer different vocabulary than story books.

Narrative Skills
Read informational books, encouraging children to tell you what they know.
Read books on topics of interest to child.
Encourage child to join in while sharing books.
Retell stories with or without props/flannel board/puppets.

Print Awareness
Babies will chew on and bat the pages of books.
Point to the title of the book; point to words in repeated phrases as children say the words.
Tell children what the author and illustrator do as you say their names.

Letter Knowledge
Read alphabet books, not necessarily from beginning to end.
Point out shapes in books; point out how two pictures of same object or character might be alike and different.
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Reading and
Ohio ELDS
Language and Literacy Development Domain:
Listening and Speaking Strand: Receptive Language and Comprehension. Example standard: "Ask meaning of words." (3 - 5 years)
Listening and Speaking Strand: Expressive Language. Example standard: "With modeling and support, use words acquired through conversations and shared reading experiences." (3 - 5 years)
Reading Strand: Early Reading. Example standard: "Actively participate in book reading, story-telling, and singing." (ages 6 - 18 months)
Reading Strand: Fluency. Example standard: "With modeling and support, use phrasing, intonation, and expression in shared reading of familiar books, poems, chants, songs, nursery rhymes or other repetitious or predictable texts." (3 - 5 years)
Reading Strand: Print Concepts. Example standard: "Demonstrate an understanding that print carries meaning." (3 - 5 years)
Reading Strand: Phonological Awareness. Example standard: "With modeling and support, recognize and produce rhyming words." (3 - 5 years)
Reading Strand: Letter and Word Recognition. Example standard: "With modeling and support, recognize and "read" familiar words or environmental print." (3 - 5 years)
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Reading and
Head Start Framework
Literacy Knowledge: Book Appreciation & Knowledge, Phonological Awareness, Alphabet Knowledge, Print Concepts & Conventions, Early Writing
Language Development: Receptive Language
English Language Development: Receptive English Language Skills, Expressive English Language Skills, Engagement in English Literacy Activities

Writing: Reading and writing go together. Children can learn pre-reading skills through writing activities
Writing and ECRR1
Writing helps children learn about print, letters, phonological awareness, vocabulary, and narrative skills.
The ORTR Library includes examples of early literacy crafts and activities that relate Writing to letter knowledge, print awareness, print motivation, and narrative skills.

Tips and activities to support the Six Skills through Writing:
Print Motivation
Have children write/scribble notes, lists, cards, tickets, signs whether or not you can read what they say.

Phonological Awareness
Draw a picture of an animal—what sound does it make?
Write child’s name, point out the sound of first letter.

Vocabulary
Have children draw a picture and tell you about it.
Add a new word or two to what the children are saying, or clarify meanings of words they are using.

Narrative Skills
Have children draw pictures for a story; write what they say.
Have children draw or write down what they know on topics.
Use charts and graphs to classify objects and have children talk about characteristics.

Print Awareness
Have children make lists, write invitations and cards, or write/draw their own books by "scribbling".

Letter Knowledge
Scribble, draw shapes, do air writing.
Draw/write letters.
Make your own book.
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Writing and
Ohio ELDS
Language and Literacy Development Domain:
Reading Strand: Letter and Word Recognition. Example standard: "With modeling and support, demonstrate understanding that alphabet letters are a special category of symbols that can be named and identified." (3 - 5 years)
Writing Strand: Early Writing. Example standard: "Begin to use thumb and fingers (5-finger grasp) of one hand to hold writing tool." (16 - 36 months)
Writing Strand: Writing Process. Example standard: "With modeling and support, print letters of own name and other meaningful words with mock letters and some actual letters." (3 - 5 years)
Writing Strand: Writing Application and Composition. Example standard: "Make marks and "scribble writing" to represent objects and ideas." (16 - 36 months)
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Writing and
Head Start Framework
Literacy Knowledge: Book Appreciation & Knowledge, Alphabet Knowledge, Print Concepts & Conventions, Early Writing

Playing: Play helps children think symbolically, express themselves, and put thoughts into words
Playing and ECRR1
Play is a way children can learn all six skills from ECRR1.
The ORTR Library includes examples of early literacy crafts and activities that relate Playing to all six skills featured in ECRR1.

Tips and activities to support the Six Skills through Playing:
Print Motivation
Engage in pretend writing and reading with your child. Encourage your child to scribble a "story" or "shopping list" and then read it to you. Pretend to go shopping together using your child's list, or bring it when you and your child go to the grocery store.

Phonological Awareness
Clap out words into syllables.
Play "I Spy" game—I spy something red that rhymes with X or that starts with sound Y.
Books are baby’s first toy. Keep books will animal sounds, with rhyme, where babies and children can easily play with them.

Vocabulary
As babies handle objects and toys describe how they feel, what they look like, sounds they make.
Enhance children’s play by adding new words and descriptions to the words they use as they play.
Children learn new words best when they learn them in context, that is, in a natural setting.

Narrative Skills
Play is a good way to develop narrative skills through role-playing different situations: restaurant, doctor’s office, school, car repair shop, library.
Dramatic play—act out stories together, can use puppets and/or props.

Print Awareness
Add print to play. For example, menus to restaurant, labels to stores or restaurants, prescriptions for doctor play, etc.

Letter Knowledge
Play with blocks—shapes, colors, size, so many ways to sort and categorize.
Play with puzzles.
Play matching and sorting games—notice what is alike and different.
Include foam, magnet, block letters in play.
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Playing and
Ohio ELDS
Language and Literacy Development Domain:
Listening and Speaking Strand: Receptive Language and Comprehension. Example standard: "Demonstrate interest in and use words that are new or unfamiliar in conversation and play." (16 - 36 months)
Reading Strand: Reading Comprehension. Example standard: "Retell or re-enact familiar stories." (3 - 5 years)
Writing Strand: Writing Application and Composition. Example standard: "With modeling and support, use a combination of drawing, dictating, and emergent writing for a variety of purposes (e.g. letters, greeting cards, menus, lists, books)." (3 - 5 years)
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Playing and
Head Start Framework
Literacy Knowledge: Book Appreciation & Knowledge
Language Development: Receptive Language, Expressive Language
English Language Development: Receptive English Language Skills, Expressive English Language Skills