This page connects the Literacy Knowledge & Skills Domain of the Head Start Child Development and Early Learning Framework to both editions of Every Child Ready to Read. For more information about the Head Start Child Development and Early Learning Framework, visit the Head Start website. Links below lead to the ECRR1 and ECRR2 crosswalk pages.


Literacy Knowledge & Skills refers to the knowledge and skills that lay the foundation for reading and writing, such as understanding basic concepts about books or other printed materials, the alphabet, and letter-sound relationships. Early literacy is the foundation for reading and writing in all academic endeavors in school. It is considered one of the most important areas for young children’s development and learning. Early literacy learning provides children with an opportunity to explore the world through books, storytelling, and other reading and writing activities. It is a mechanism for learning about topics they enjoy and acquiring content knowledge and concepts that support progress in other domains. It is critical for supporting a range of positive outcomes, including success in school and other environments.


Book Appreciation and Knowledge
The interest in books and their characteristics, and the ability to understand and get meaning from stories and information from books and other texts
Shows interest in shared reading experiences and looking at books independently
ECRR1
Print Motivation
ECRR2
Reading

Recognizes how books are read, such as front-to-back and one page at a time, and recognizes basic characteristics, such as title, author, and illustrator
ECRR1
Print Awareness
ECRR2
Reading

Asks and answers questions and makes comments about print materials
ECRR1
Print Motivation
ECRR2
Reading, Talking

Demonstrates interest in different kinds of literature, such as fiction and non-fiction books and poetry, on a range of topics
ECRR1
Print Motivation
ECRR2
Reading

Retells stories or information from books through conversation, artistic works, creative movement, or drama
ECRR1
Narrative Skills, Print Motivation
ECRR2
Playing, Writing, Reading

Phonological Awareness
An awareness that language can be broken into words, syllables, and smaller pieces of sound
Identifies and discriminates between words in language
ECRR1
Phonological Awareness
ECRR2
Singing, Talking, Reading

Identifies and discriminates between separate syllables in words
ECRR1
Phonological Awareness
ECRR2
Singing, Talking, Reading

Identifies and discriminates between sounds and phonemes in language, such as attention to beginning and ending sounds of words and recognition that different words begin or end with the same sound
ECRR1
Phonological Awareness
ECRR2
Singing, Talking, Reading

Alphabet Knowledge
The names and sounds associated with letters
Recognizes that the letters of the alphabet are a special category of visual graphics that can be individually named
ECRR1
Letter Knowledge, Print Awareness
ECRR2
Reading, Writing

Recognizes that letters of the alphabet have distinct sound(s) associated with them
ECRR1
Letter Knowledge
ECRR2
Reading

Attends to the beginning letters and sounds in familiar words
ECRR1
Letter Knowledge, Phonological Awareness
ECRR2
Reading, Talking

Identifies letters and associates correct sounds with letters
ECRR1
Letter Knowledge
ECRR2
Reading, Writing, Talking

Print Concepts & Conventions
The concepts about print and early decoding (identifying letter-sound relationships)
Recognizes print in everyday life, such as numbers, letters, one’s name, words, and familiar logos and signs
ECRR1
Print Awareness
ECRR2
Reading, Talking

Understands that print conveys meaning
ECRR1
Print Awareness
ECRR2
Reading, Talking, Writing

Understands conventions, such as print moves from left to right and top to bottom of a page
ECRR1
Print Awareness
ECRR2
Reading, Writing

Recognizes words as a unit of print and understands that letters are grouped to form words
ECRR1
Awareness, Letter Knowledge
ECRR2
Reading, Writing

Recognizes the association between spoken or signed and written words
ECRR1
Print Awareness, Letter Knowledge
ECRR2
Reading, Talking, Writing

Early Writing
The familiarity with writing implements, conventions, and emerging skills to communicate through written representations, symbols, and letters
Experiments with writing tools and materials
ECRR1
Print Awareness
ECRR2
Writing

Recognizes that writing is a way of communicating for a variety of purposes, such as giving information, sharing stories, or giving an opinion
ECRR1
Print Awareness, Narrative Skills
ECRR2
Reading, Writing, Talking

Uses scribbles, shapes, pictures, and letters to represent objects, stories, experiences, or ideas
ECRR1
Print Awareness, Narrative Skills
ECRR2
Writing

Copies, traces, or independently writes letters or words
ECRR1
Print Awareness, Letter Knowledge
ECRR2
Writing